遂昌| 从化| 浠水| 桓仁| 莘县| 安多| 米易| 察哈尔右翼前旗| 惠水| 绥中| 西沙岛| 来凤| 缙云| 剑川| 固安| 蒙阴| 怀柔| 岑巩| 天水| 山阴| 满城| 南城| 中江| 兴文| 山丹| 江川| 武陟| 兰考| 邛崃| 轮台| 亳州| 乐安| 山丹| 聂荣| 梅州| 米林| 炉霍| 龙口| 合江| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 金湾| 丹寨| 原阳| 云龙| 佳木斯| 汝州| 龙州| 陈巴尔虎旗| 独山子| 会泽| 南川| 应城| 拉萨| 武夷山| 定远| 江孜| 久治| 瓦房店| 洪湖| 潮州| 北海| 洞头| 额尔古纳| 太康| 乐都| 大方| 清苑| 湟中| 右玉| 南召| 调兵山| 威远| 疏附| 巴马| 佛坪| 修武| 闻喜| 兴山| 博山| 巴里坤| 南乐| 罗甸| 泸水| 乐山| 胶南| 晋州| 河北| 安乡| 万宁| 辽阳县| 木兰| 卓尼| 井研| 资溪| 乃东| 永和| 莲花| 西盟| 和县| 武陵源| 宿豫| 兴仁| 本溪满族自治县| 文昌| 兴国| 元江| 湛江| 长宁| 莱阳| 南江| 金湖| 竹溪| 新野| 曲江| 海城| 大连| 民和| 左权| 湄潭| 丹东| 望奎| 鄂托克旗| 临县| 汝阳| 调兵山| 天池| 印台| 从化| 会东| 磴口| 东莞| 营口| 新巴尔虎左旗| 广南| 城口| 云阳| 潼南| 揭西| 鹰潭| 南涧| 漳平| 美姑| 察雅| 沁县| 漳浦| 富锦| 金湖| 安丘| 黑龙江| 双桥| 萧县| 阿城| 钟祥| 长丰| 依兰| 高要| 崇州| 玉龙| 青海| 缙云| 新津| 米脂| 自贡| 绥棱| 合江| 天等| 东胜| 陆川| 宜宾市| 九龙坡| 裕民| 红古| 涞源| 三门峡| 阿瓦提| 龙岗| 南涧| 涟源| 梅河口| 沙县| 江城| 汉中| 巴里坤| 称多| 钟山| 平定| 汉阴| 新干| 普洱| 高陵| 乌什| 恭城| 舒城| 宜君| 怀远| 土默特左旗| 滦南| 罗城| 师宗| 西乌珠穆沁旗| 南华| 宁津| 江陵| 苍南| 枣强| 围场| 祁门| 莲花| 防城区| 逊克| 民权| 城口| 平川| 柘荣| 鹤庆| 烟台| 阜新市| 当阳| 姜堰| 遂川| 武胜| 新宾| 资中| 呼玛| 洪湖| 法库| 贵阳| 茶陵| 拜城| 柞水| 通榆| 汤原| 靖远| 大同县| 涿鹿| 西林| 巩留| 吐鲁番| 南京| 郓城| 聂荣| 祥云| 东兰| 雷波| 青田| 天长| 永丰| 长春| 环县| 疏附| 五华| 温泉| 灵丘| 顺平| 沭阳| 吉首| 禹城| 应县| 道孚| 洱源| 武隆| 靖边| 涡阳|

文化部2016年度公务员考录专业科目考试和面试公告

2019-09-22 04:20 来源:腾讯健康

  文化部2016年度公务员考录专业科目考试和面试公告

  PhototakenonJune7,2018showsexhibitsattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChina(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)AcuratorintroducestheAfricanArtExhibitionheldinsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)JournaliststakephotosattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)PhototakenonJune7,2018showsexhibitsattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChina(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)AjournalisttakesphotosattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)PolandsRobertLewandowski(2ndL)attendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)PolandsRobertLewandowskiattendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)FrancesPaulPogba(1stL)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesOlivierGiroud(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesAntoineGriezmann(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappeattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesPaulPogba(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesgoalkeeperHugoLlorisattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappeattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappe(R)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesplayersattendatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)AdamNawalka(C),headcoachofPoland,talkstotheplayersduringatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)PolandsRobertLewandowski(LFront)attendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)

Eightetiquettevolunteersposeforaphotoatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng),2008showsJiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifangasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao;LowerphototakenonJune5,2018showsthecoupleasvolunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,inQingdao,eastChina,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Photo/Xinhua)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guideatouristinWendengRoadinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,giveouthandbooksatMingxialuCommunityinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,gatheratMingxialuCommunityfortraininginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(3rdR)andhiswifeLianShifang(2ndR),volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guidepassengersatabusstopinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)EtiquetteteacherLuMin(1stR)instructsvolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Eightetiquettevolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitpracticeinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)TwobirdsrestonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)

  AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersareseenneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)PassengersareseenatSentosaStationonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AtramrunsonSentosaIsland,AsiasleadingleisuredestinationandSingaporespremierislandgetaway,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewfromthetramonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)TouristsareseenonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewofsceneryneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AshuttlebusonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)WorkerserectafenceneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)WorkerserectafenceneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersareseenneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing),2017showstwilightthroughtheSeventeenArchBridgeintheSummerPalaceinBeijing,capitalofChina.(Xinhua/LiuXianguo)China,700activitieswillbeheldacrossChinatocelebratethisyearsculturalandnaturalheritageday,,whichwasestablishedtosafegstakealookat20culturalheritagesitesinChina,,originallynamedQingyiYuan,ortheGardenofClearRipples,wasanimperialgardenconstructedin1750byEmperorQianlonginabidtocelebratehismother,emperorsandempressesspenttheirleisuretimethere,eselandscapegardendesign,,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,,2018,togreettheSpringFestivalandTibetanNewYear.(Xinhua/Chogo),LhasaThePotalaPalace,winterpalaceoftheDalaiLama,hassymbolizedTibetanBuddhismanditscen,madeupoftheWhiteandRedPalaceswiththeirancillarybuildings,isbuiltonRedMountaininthecenterofLhasaValley,atanaltitudeof3,,JokhangTempleMonasteryandNorbulingkawereaddedtothelistrespectivelyin1994,,2018showsthesnowsceneryofWestLakeinHangzhou,eastChinaZhejiangProvince,,2018.(Xinhua/HuangZongzhi),,WestLakeCulturalLandscapeofHangzhouhasinspiredfamouspoets,,pagodas,pavilions,gardensandornamentaltrees,,2018showsseaofcloudsafterrainfallatHuangyaguansectionoftheGreatWallinTianjin,northChina.(Xinhua/YangYushan),theGreatWallwindsupanddownacrossdeserts,grasslands,mountainsandplateaus,,horsetracks,watchtowers,andsheltersonthewall,,000years,,itisstilloneofthemostappealingattractionsallaroundt,oneofthegreatestwondersoftheworld,,northwestChinasGansuProvince,,2016.(Photo/Xinhua),Gansuprovince,theMogaocaves,alsoknownastheThousand-BuddhaCaves,aretheworldslargest,mostrichlyendowed,,atthecrossroadsoftradeaswellasreligious,,thecarvingofthecavesstartedin366ADandcontinuedforabout1,,housingabout45,000squaremetersofmuralsandmorethan2,000paintedsculptures,,wi(Photo/Xinhua)sYuanDynastyinChina,slegendarycapitalcity,designedbytheMongolrulersChineseadvisor,LiuBingzhong,,includingtemples,palaces,tombs,nomadicencampmentsandtheTiefangangCanal,,,:/FengJun):anImperialSacrificialAltarinBeijingLocatedinthesouthernpartofBeijing,theTempleofHeavenisamagnificentcomplexoffirs,andisthelargestoneinBeijingamongseveralroyalaltarstoHeaven,Earth,theSun,,SoutheastChinasFujianprovince,onDec9,2016.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WangDongming)e15thand20thcenturiesover120kilometersinthesouth-westofFujianprovince,irfunctionexe,,efilm,resembling"scarfs"and"dresses",aspartoftheirrestorationintheEmperorQinshihuangsMausoleumSiteMuseuminXian,Shaanxiprovince,Feb23,2015.(Photo/CFP)ntainingterracottawarriorsandhorsesarelocatedinLintongcounty,nearXi’ancity,,,themausoleumislaidoutinlinewiththedimensionsofXianyang,,,,ridianGate(WuMen)ofthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,April17,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)ForbiddenCity,locatedinthecenterofBeijing,,,,(anareaenclosedbyfourpoles).In1924,theimperialfamilyoftheQingDynastywasremovedfromtheForbiddenCity,age,nearMountHuangshan,Anhuiprovince,inMay.(Photo:ChinaDaily/WangHao),HuangshancityinsouthAnhuiprovince,thetwotraditionalvillagesXidiandHongcunarearchitecturalcomplexes,,landscape,architecturalform,decorationandconstructiontechniquesallretaint,northChinasShanxiProvince,April22,,listedasaUNESCOWorldCulturalHeritagesitein2001,willwitnessatourismpeakastheMayDayholidayiscoming.(Photo:Xinhua/YanYan),some16kmwestofDatongcity,Shanxiprovince,theYungangGrottoeswerebuiltagainstthemountainandextendaboutonekm(),000statueswithinacarvedareaof18,000squaremeters,YungangGrottoesrepresenttheoutstandin,withtheirstrictunityoflayoutanddesign,coPoliticalPartyForumvisitLiuyuanorLingeringGardeninSuzhou,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,April22,2013.(Xinhua/ShenPeng),whichseekstorecreateminiaturenaturallandscapes,isnotillustratedanybetterthanintheninegardensinthehistoriccityofSuzhou,’,2017showstheviewofChengdesummerresortinnorthChinasHebeiProvince.(Xinhua/LiuMancang),ChengdeIntermsofthegenerallayout,architecturalstyles,constructiontechniques,decorationdetailsandgardenlandscape,theMountainResort,avastcomplexofpalacesandadministrativeandceremonialbuildingsbuiltbetween1703and1792,representsthebroadexchangeandconvergencebetweenHancultureandtheethniccultures-Confucianism,BuddhismandTaoism-andthearchitecturalstylesbetweenChina,theMountainResorthastemplesofmanyarchitecturalstylesandimperialgardensblendeffortlesslyintoalandscapeoflakes,,,centralChinasHenanProvince,April17,(Xinhua/ZhuXiang)e(618-907).Located13kmsouthofLuoyang,Henanprovince,theLongmenGrottoesareconcentratedontheeastandwestcliffsoftheYishuiRiver,,duringtheNorthernWeiDynasty,Grottoes,liketheTwentyGemsofLongmenCalligraphyandZhuSuiliang’sstonetablets,,madein641inhonorofthemotherofthefourthsonofEmperorTaizong,,,LushanMountainisoneofthemostrenownedmountainsandtourismresortsinthecountry.(Photo/ShanghaiDaily),LushanMountainisoneofChina’,whichwasinscribedontheWorldHeritageListin1996,i,LushanisthebirthplaceofChineselandscapepoetry,plus,thefamousLushanPlenumrepresentsitsroleinChina’,,southwestChinasYunnanProvince,,SCOin1997.(Photo:Xinhua/YangZongyou),lyingontheLijiangplainatanelevationof2,400metersinsouthwestYunnanprovinceofChina,alandstrategifelementsfromseveralcultures,anditsancientwater-supplysy,WudangMountain,alsoknownasTaiheMountain,isbothafamousscenicspotandaholysiteofTaoism,Chinasindigenousreligion.(Photo/)anjiangkouincentralHubeiprovince,theWudangMountainsarehometoafamouscomplexofancientpalaces,periodofnearly1,,anannualeventputonbythespecialadministrativeregionsgovernment,sonSundaynight,(Photo:Xinhua/ZhangJinjia)’straditionalChinesedesign,itstandswitnesst’smissionaryroleintheFarEastwhilealso,formingthemostuniqueblendofculturalheritageexistinginChina’,,clairaudienceandtheJadeEmperorintheDazuRockCarvingsinChongqingmunicipality.(Photo/TheofficialWechataccountofDazuRockCarvings),,’,50,000statuesand100,000inscribedwithChinesecharacter,1999.

  AresidentmakesZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)PeoplepickleavestomakeZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinforestofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)AwomancleansleavesformakingZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinarivuletofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)Volunteersmakezongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,fortheelderlypersonsofnofamilytocelebratetheDuanwuFestivalatacommunityinZhenjiangCity,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/ShiYucheng)SingaporeanPrimeMinisterLeeHsienLoong(R)meetswithKimJongUn,chairmanoftheWorkersPartyofKorea(WPK)andchairmanoftheStateAffairsCommissionoftheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK),inSingapore,onJune10,2018.(Xinhua/ThenChihWey)SingaporeanPrimeMinisterLeeHsienLoong(R)shakeshandswithKimJongUn,chairmanoftheWorkersPartyofKorea(WPK)andchairmanoftheStateAffairsCommissionoftheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK),inSingapore,onJune10,2018.(Xinhua/ThenChihWey)

AresidentmakesZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)PeoplepickleavestomakeZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinforestofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)AwomancleansleavesformakingZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinarivuletofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)Volunteersmakezongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,fortheelderlypersonsofnofamilytocelebratetheDuanwuFestivalatacommunityinZhenjiangCity,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/ShiYucheng)

  AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersareseenneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)AsignforapolicecheckstandsneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)PassengersareseenatSentosaStationonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AtramrunsonSentosaIsland,AsiasleadingleisuredestinationandSingaporespremierislandgetaway,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewfromthetramonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)TouristsareseenonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewofsceneryneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AshuttlebusonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)WorkerserectafenceneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)WorkerserectafenceneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)ReportersareseenneartheCapellaResortonSentosaIsland,Singapore,June10,oplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-unwillbeheldattheCapellaResort.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/XuFangqing)

  CraftswomanLiWenlingshowsherpaper-cuttingworksatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsafolkmusicperformanceatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsateaartshowatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)CraftsmanMuXujianshowsdoughsculpturemakingtojournalistsatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)CraftsmanMuXujianmakesdoughsculpturesatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)FormerprofessionalfootballstarDavidBeckhamplayscuju,knownastheoriginofmodernfootball,attheBengbuAncientBuildingsExpoParkaheadofthe2018G-EXPOGlobalTopSummitinBengbuCity,EastChina’sAnhuiProvince,June6,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhongXin)FormerprofessionalfootballstarDavidBeckhamplayscuju,knownastheoriginofmodernfootball,attheBengbuAncientBuildingsExpoParkaheadofthe2018G-EXPOGlobalTopSummitinBengbuCity,EastChina’sAnhuiProvince,June6,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhongXin)

  AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)

  PhototakenonJune11,2018showstheKing’sTroopRoyalHorseArtilleryfireda41-gunsaluteinHydePark,London,tomarkPrincePhilips97thbirthday.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune11,2018showstheKing’sTroopRoyalHorseArtilleryfireda41-gunsaluteinHydePark,London,tomarkPrincePhilips97thbirthday.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune11,2018showstheKing’sTroopRoyalHorseArtilleryfireda41-gunsaluteinHydePark,London,tomarkPrincePhilips97thbirthday.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune11,2018showstheKing’sTroopRoyalHorseArtilleryfireda41-gunsaluteinHydePark,London,tomarkPrincePhilips97thbirthday.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune11,2018showstheKing’sTroopRoyalHorseArtilleryfireda41-gunsaluteinHydePark,London,tomarkPrincePhilips97thbirthday.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune11,2018showstheKing’sTroopRoyalHorseArtilleryfireda41-gunsaluteinHydePark,London,tomarkPrincePhilips97thbirthday.(Photo/Agencies)

  AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)

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  Special:ThemanydocumentsadoptedattheQingdaosummitoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)onSundaydemonstrateitsunity,vitalitya,thetwo-dayeventdeliveredpositiveoutcomesonsecurity,tradeandeconomy,environment,people-to-peopleandculturalexchanges,clarationoftheCouncilofHeadsofMemberStatesoftheSCO,theJointStatementoftheHeadsofMemberStatesoftheSCOonPromotingTradeFacilitationandafive-yearactionplanforimplementingtheTreatyonLong-TermGood-Neighborliness,,addingposiasweightierresponsibilitiestoundertaketomeghaiSpirit,asetoffundamentalprinciplesencompassingmutualtrust,mutualbenefit,equality,consultation,sdefiningfeature,smostsignificantandinfluentialregionalorganizations,accountingforabout40percentoftheworld,initiativestobuildanewtypeofinternationalrelationsandacommunitywithasharedfutureforhumanityhaveenrichedtheblocsphilosophy,givingitamorepowerfulresonanceinthe"newera."TheSCOmembershavereachedbroadconsensusonenhancingsolidarityandcoordination,deepeningcooperationonfightingterrorism,opposingtradeprotectionism,strengtheningpeople-to-(BRI),proposedbyChinain2013,ationateveryturn,,regionalconflicts,drugtrafficking,transnationalcrimes,,,uritygovernance,,fourobserverstatesandsixdialoguepartners,theSCOhasembarkedonanewandpromisingpathtoacommunitywithasharedfuture.AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)AviewoftheWeishuiReservoirinSongziCity,CentralChina’,,makingitatoptouristattraction,anditisalsohometoaleadingcampingsite.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhouXingliang)

  

  文化部2016年度公务员考录专业科目考试和面试公告

 
责编:

农民合作社“阵痛”中转型

 

2019-09-22 来源: 瞭望

??? 面对农业供给侧结构性改革新形势,农民合作社的发展须坚持产业化发展方向,从单一的种植合作社,向生产、供销、信用“三位一体”的方向发展,将土地、金融、组织培育、主体培育等有机地结合起来,在市场中找到盈利模式。

  3月24日,哈尔滨市双城区东官农业农机专业合作社院内,维修工人在检修农机具 王建威摄

  农民合作社是发展农业现代化的重要载体。春耕备耕之际,《瞭望》新闻周刊记者采访数十家农民合作社发现,随着玉米价格下跌,前几年蓬勃发展起来的合作社经营效益明显下滑,尤其是以旱田为主的合作社多数处于微利状态,有的甚至亏损,合作社发展正从“黄金期”跌入“阵痛期”,或遭遇新的“拐点”。

  面对阵痛,部分合作社主动转型升级,调优种植结构,走一二三产融合之路,组建联合社,应对新挑战。随着土地流转价格下降,合作社发展也面临新机遇,带来利好。一些合作社理事长和基层干部表示,为让农民合作社健康持续发展,应予以更多精准扶持。

  从“黄金期”到“阵痛期”

  黑龙江省汤原县北向阳村向阳现代农业专业合作社去年流转了2000亩地种玉米,玉米收获后就卖了。“卖的时候水分百分之三十,每斤4毛2,现在卖更不合适。”在接受《瞭望》新闻周刊采访时,合作社理事长周贵财算了一笔账:一亩玉米的种植成本约650元,每亩玉米产量1200多斤,算下来每亩玉米赔140多元,加上153.92元国家玉米生产者补贴才不赔钱。

  记者在调查中发现,两年时间里,东北玉米每斤降低0.46元左右,每亩直接减收500元左右。黑龙江省庆安县现代农机农业合作社去年种了350公顷玉米,合作社理事长于洪光说,每公顷产量达到2.5万斤,以每斤4毛5的价格出售,而一公顷流转价格7500元,其他生产成本5500元,算下来每公顷赔了1750元,加上玉米生产者补贴,每公顷利润在558.8元。“一公顷的利润,还比不上以前一亩地的利润。”

  “前几年即使从外面以5000多元每公顷的价格流转土地,亩纯利润仍可达500元左右,而如果种自己的地,没有流转费,亩利润可达近千元。”和多位基层干部的观点相似,黑龙江省孙吴县桦林现代农机合作社理事长吴德显认为,农民合作社正从“黄金期”到“阵痛期”。 

  春耕生产在即,黑河市爱辉区嘉兴现代农业农机专业合作社理事长盖永峰很着急。2月下旬,他往当地中储粮收购点送了13车玉米,由于质量要求高,只卸了3车。后来他不敢去送了,“来回运费就需要不少钱”。 

  3月初,该合作社8000多吨玉米仍露天堆放在院子里。到了3月中旬,化肥资金还没着落,合作社“忍痛”把7000多吨玉米卖给了四川、山东的饲料企业。盖永峰说,尽管明知亏损,算下来每亩亏损70多元,但也得卖,玉米亩效益五六百元的时代已成过去。 

  盖永峰算了一笔账:一公顷土地流转费5000元,化肥农药2000多元,种子机械近2800元,所有的种植成本约1万元,而每公顷玉米产量1.5万斤,价格是每斤0.45元,算下来每公顷亏损3250元,加上国家玉米生产者补贴每公顷2308.8元,每公顷仍亏损1141.2元,平均每亩70多元。  

  黑龙江省嫩江县黎明现代农机合作社理事长王树民说,合作社最好的时候年纯收入5000多万元,去年玉米每斤至少下降3毛钱,合作社严重亏损。前几年挣的钱都用来购置农机,如今资金短缺,农机不能抵押,从银行贷不到款,没钱种地,已经到了难以为继的地步。 

  黑龙江省孙吴县哈屯现代农机专业合作社理事长王跃龙说,目前身边已有合作社倒闭,还有不少合作社处于纠结观望甚至迷茫状态。黑龙江省兰西县振宇玉米专业合作社理事长李德明说,合作社从最初只有5户,发展到152户,2015年社内种植的玉米获得丰收,创收了300余万元,而去年出现亏损。 

  农业部门调查显示,去年黑龙江省流转土地种植玉米的农民,大多数处于微利或持平,特别是一些农民合作社、种植大户收益大幅下降。来自黑龙江省黑河市农委的数据显示,全市新型经营主体在不包含政策性补贴的情况下,主要种植品种销售均出现亏损。其中,玉米每亩减收500元左右,考虑政策性补贴后的亏损为176元;大豆每亩亏损150元。 

  多位合作社理事长和基层干部表示,随着玉米价格下跌,以旱田为主的农民合作社有的出现亏损,可能会有一部分倒闭。

  市场倒逼转型升级

  面对阵痛,《瞭望》新闻周刊记者调查发现,一些合作社主动转型升级,开始调优种植结构,从依赖化肥农药重产量向绿色生产重质量转变,增加有效供给;有的转向农业产业化,走一二三产融合之路;还有的地方整村推进带地入社,成立联合社规避市场风险。 

  调优种植结构,加快绿色发展,“找市场”意识增强。黑河市爱辉区勇胜现代农机专业合作社购买的大豆种子已存放在仓库,技术员也开始检修农机备春耕。经历了去年玉米价格大幅下跌后,该合作社理事长杨永和并没有灰心,今年他准备倒茬种2.5万亩高蛋白大豆。“不但改善了品种,而且国家鼓励减玉米增大豆,有耕地轮作补贴。”杨永和说,2015年底和一家玉米种子公司签订40万元的订单,由于国家取消玉米临储政策,最后决定放弃拟承包的1.8万亩地,只种社员带地入社的4500亩,因此支付了全额违约金。

  “虽然交了40万元违约金,但年底我们算了账,调减玉米使合作社少赔500多万元。”杨永和说,去年合作社主动“找市场”,与河南一家企业合作,对方提供收粮资金,年底核算不但没赔,还实现盈利100万元,实属不易。

  黑龙江省越来越多的农民开始主动“找市场”。黑龙江省绥棱县宝山村农业种植合作社今年准备发展2000亩绿色大豆。合作社理事长逯德民说,去年种大豆和玉米基本不挣钱,随着玉米收储制度改革,倒逼合作社加快调结构,从备耕开始就积极向“绿色、有机、安全”农产品靠拢。逯德民今年打算对这2000亩大豆不打农药、不上化肥,经过3年轮换期后,将转换成有机大豆,目前已和一家企业签订了订单。

  向产业化要效益,走一二三产融合之路。黑龙江省孙吴县桦林现代农机合作社经营土地15.1万亩,其中社员带地入社6.7万亩,代耕8.4万亩,新形势下转向种、养、加、销全产业链发展。在合作社肉牛养殖基地,经过发酵技术处理后粪便闻不到异味。据合作社理事长吴德显介绍,目前存栏基础母牛900头、育肥肉牛1300头,通过与黑龙江农科院畜牧所合作,合作社新生犊牛成活率由之前的60%提高到95%,今年准备投资120万元新建肉牛屠宰生产线。 

  该合作社投资450万元的糖化饲料、酿酒生产加工厂也正在兴建。“酿酒是我们的副业,主要是为了利用酒糟发展肉牛养殖,实现农产品多次转化增值。”吴德显说,这些肉牛产生的粪便,用酵素有机肥技术生产有机肥,全部施撒在耕地里,用来发展循环农业。桦林现代农机合作社还建成日处理60吨水稻加工生产线一条,水稻加工年增值可实现160万元,注册“昊北”大米商标。

  整村推进,带动贫困户入社。黑龙江省孙吴县红旗乡建设村是远近闻名的贫困村,该村与孙吴县哈屯现代农机合作社达成合作意向。据王跃龙介绍,去年合作社投资70余万元完成了对该村整村搬迁工作,置换农村建设用地8.7万平方米。同时,申请注册了哈屯天马种植合作社,带动贫困户入社,种植汉麻5000余亩。近日,孙吴县引进投资2亿元的汉麻制药系列产品加工项目落户该合作社,并建设年加工5000吨原植物初提取加工厂。

  规避市场风险成立联合社。黑河市爱辉区49家农民合作社组成了联合社,盖永峰当选为联合社理事长。他说,联合社使各合作社取长补短、信息互通、资源共享,有利于解决单一合作社发展规模小、经营实力弱、市场竞争力有限、贷款融资难等问题。

  中国社会科学院农村发展研究所研究员李国祥说,面对农业供给侧结构性改革新形势,农民合作社的发展必须坚持产业化发展方向,从单一的种植合作社,向生产、供销、信用“三位一体”的方向发展,将土地、金融、组织培育、主体培育等有机地结合起来,在市场中找到一种盈利模式。

  期盼对合作社予以精准扶持

  尽管合作社面临阵痛和艰难转型,但土地流转价格的下降,为合作社的发展带来利好。多位基层农业干部介绍,玉米临储政策取消后,今年各地旱田流转价格均有所回落,平均每亩下降100元以上。这有利于降低农业生产成本,为合作社、种植大户等推进标准化、规模化生产创造了有利机遇。

  合作社是发展土地规模经营的重要载体,是提高农业机械化水平的重要力量。为促进农民合作社健康持续发展,一些专家建议,合作社要进一步引入现代化的企业管理机制,建立完善的管理制度和科学合理的内部责任制度并严格执行,实现内部资源的优化配置。在完善“一人一票”民主管理机制的基础上,可适当增加“一股一票”的管理方式,这既可以提高社员多入股的积极性,又可以给能人发挥经营管理才能的机会。 

  加强合作社的风险共担意识,鼓励带地入社。《瞭望》新闻周刊记者调查发现,多数合作社是单纯的土地流转,春耕之前就要付地租,出现了利益能共享、风险不共担的情况,合作社领班人独自承担风险。王树民说,合作社想发展带地入社模式,但一直没有发展起来,近两年出现的亏损都是合作社自己承担。中国农科院农业经济与发展研究所研究员蒋和平建议,应鼓励农民带地入社,建立股份制专业合作社,使合作社真正成为生产集约、风险共担、利益共享、各方面管理规范的经济组织。

  盖永峰、王跃龙等表示,面对种粮收益下降,“有种地钱,建设基础设施缺钱”。他们期盼国家对农民专业合作社基础设施建设进行补贴,尤其是在机械仓库、农田路水渠、晾晒场、标准化农田建设、秸秆还田等方面加大支持力度,提高合作社粮食综合生产能力。  

  吴德显说,目前合作社聘请了孙吴县农机推广站三位退休人员,但随着合作社发展壮大,需要更多爱农业、懂技术的人才。期盼中央和地方财政安排专项资金,免费提供科学种田、养殖等职业技能教育,同时采取激励措施,鼓励农业技术骨干进入合作社;设立青年农民农业创业基金,对从事农业经营并达到一定规模的给予补助或奖励。( 文/《瞭望》新闻周刊记者李凤双 王建)

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